NM = Negociant Manipulant, that is, “Champagne merchant” NM refers to the wine merchant who purchases grapes from grape growers to make champagne. It is worth noting that many large Champagne producers also produce some of their own grapes, but if the proportion of self-produced grapes in the wine grapes is less than 94%, they must be labeled as NM. Large Champagne producers usually fall into this category, such as Champagne Veuve Clicquot, Champagne Bollinger and Champagne Moet & Chandon. RM = Recoltant Manipulant, that is, “wine grower’s champagne” RM refers to grape growers who use grapes from their own vineyards and brew them on their own premises, and then sell them under their own brands. CM=Cooperative de Manipulation, that is, “Champagne Cooperative” CM refers to using grapes grown by cooperative members to brew champagne and promote and sell it uniformly. RC=Recoltant Cooperateur, that is, “Cooperative Independent Producer” RC refers to the grape growers in the Champagne cooperative using their own independent brands to sell the champagne brewed by the cooperative. SR=Societe de Recoltants, or “Wine Growers and Champagne Producers Association” SR refers to the growers in a family business who use the grapes produced in the family vineyard to make wine and sell it under their own brand. ND = Negociant Distributeur, that is, “Champagne Distributor” ND means that the distributor buys bottled Champagne and then sells it under his own label. MA = Marque d’Acheteur, that is, “buyer brand” MA refers to a brand specially created for a certain customer. For example, a supermarket can purchase a batch of champagne and name it after its own brand.